A cholesterol test is a simple blood test carried out to measure the levels of the two cholesterol types in the blood known as HDL and LDL cholesterol as well as the levels of triglycerides, another lipid found in the blood. Thus, four measures are determined from this test, the amount of total cholesterol, the amount of HDL, LDL and triglycerides. A total cholesterol test is also referred to as a fasting lipoprotein profile and is carried out in order to evaluate a person’s risk of developing heart disease.