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A urologist is a physician and surgeon who is trained to evaluate the genitourinary tract, which includes the kidneys, urinary bladder and genital structures in men and women, and the prostate and testicles in men.

Medical Conditions

  • Kidney stones - these develop in the kidneys and can pass into the ureters (tubes running from kidneys to bladder) before being excreted into the bladder then voided out. This can cause excruciating pain usually radiating from the loin to groin. Pain tends to be associated with haematuria (blood in the urine)
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Prostate disease - the prostate is a gland in the male that sits at the base of the bladder surrounding the urethra (tube that runs from the bladder to penis). It can enlarge or get cancerous causing symptoms including difficulty urinating
  • Congenital renal and urological malformations
  • Haematuria - this is blood in the urine and can be from numerous different causes
  • Sexual and reproductive problems

Specialty Areas of Interest

  • Pediatric urology: urologic conditions that affect children
  • Urologic oncology: cancers of the kidney, bladder, prostate and testicle
  • Renal transplantation: related to renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease
  • Male infertility: the diminished or absent ability for a male to conceive
  • Calculi: urologic stone disease
  • Female urology: conditions that pertain largely to normal urinary function in women, urinary incontinence and pelvic outlet relaxation disorders
  • Neurourology: involves the normal neurologic and muscular control of urinary function, voiding disorders, urodynamic evaluation of patient and erectile dysfunction

Associated Tests

  • Digital rectal examination (DRE) or per-rectal examination (PR) - a lubricated and gloved finger is passed through the anal sphincter into the rectum to assess the size, consistency and texture of the prostate gland in men.
  • Urinalysis - a urine specimen is anaylsed for its content - to determine whether there is blood in it, or whether infection is likely.
  • Urodynamics - the neurologic and muscular function of urination are evaluated
  • Imaging - X-Rays, ultrasound, CT scans and MRI of the genitourinary tract are frequently ordered.


  • Lithotripsy - ultrasound waves are used to shatter kidney stones lodged in the kidney and ureters so they may pass more easily into the bladder.
  • Cystoscopy - the lining of the bladder is examined by passing a small camera housed in a thin tube up the urethra into the bladder.
  • TURP - transurethral resection of the prostate
  • Numerous surgical procedures to kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate, urethra and genitalia.
  • Medications

What to expect


The urologist will discuss your problems which led to the referral.


The urologist will have to examine you, and this usually entails examining your genitals. This often entails a digital rectal examination.

Training and Qualifications